Flaxseed oil as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid source modulates cortisol concentrations and social dominance in male and female guinea pigs

Horm Behav. 2021 Aug:134:105025. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2021.105025. Epub 2021 Jul 7.


Flaxseed oil is an excellent source of the essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). Omega-3 PUFAs are important neuronal components and can counteract aggressive, depressive, and anxiety-like behavior, reduce glucocorticoid (e.g. cortisol) concentrations under chronic stress but also increase acute glucocorticoid responses. As glucocorticoids per se and glucocorticoid responsiveness can modulate the establishment of dominance hierarchies, we investigated if flaxseed oil high in ALA can promote social dominance through effects on glucocorticoid concentrations. Two male and two female groups of domestic guinea pigs (n = 9 per group) were maintained on a control or a 5% (w/w) flaxseed oil diet for four weeks. Social behaviors, hierarchy indices, locomotion, and saliva cortisol concentrations were determined during basal group housing conditions and stressful social confrontations with unfamiliar individuals of the other groups. Flaxseed groups had increased basal cortisol concentrations and showed no cortisol increase during social confrontations. Cortisol concentrations in control groups significantly increased during social confrontations. Such higher cortisol responses positively affected individual hierarchy indices in control males. However, flaxseed males became dominant irrespective of cortisol concentrations. In females, the opposite was detected, namely a higher dominant status in control compared to flaxseed females. Open-field- and dark-light-tests for anxiety-like behavior revealed no pronounced differences, but flaxseed males showed the highest locomotor activity. Flaxseed oil as an ALA source sex-specifically promoted social dominance irrespective of cortisol concentrations and responses. The underlying neuronal mechanisms remain to be determined, but a sex-specific energetic advantage may have accounted for this effect.

Keywords: Flaxseed oil; Locomotion; Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid; Saliva cortisol; Sex difference; Social dominance.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Diet
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3*
  • Female
  • Guinea Pigs
  • Hydrocortisone
  • Linseed Oil* / pharmacology
  • Male
  • Social Dominance


  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  • Linseed Oil
  • Hydrocortisone