Genetics, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, management, and prevention of migraine

Biomed Pharmacother. 2021 Jul:139:111557. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111557. Epub 2021 May 17.


Migraine is a neurological ailment that is characterized by severe throbbing unilateral headache and associated with nausea, photophobia, phonophobia and vomiting. A full and clear mechanism of the pathogenesis of migraine, though studied extensively, has not been established yet. The current available information indicates an intracranial network activation that culminates in the sensitization of the trigemino-vascular system, release of inflammatory markers, and initiation of meningeal-like inflammatory reaction that is sensed as headache. Genetic factors might play a significant role in deciding an individual's susceptibility to migraine. Twin studies have revealed that a single gene polymorphism can lead to migraine in individuals with a monogenic migraine disorder. In this review, we describe recent advancements in the genetics, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, management, and prevention of migraine. We also discuss the potential roles of genetic and abnormal factors, including some of the metabolic triggering factors that result in migraine attacks. This review will help to accumulate current knowledge about migraine and understanding of its pathophysiology, and provides up-to-date prevention strategies.

Keywords: Diagnosis; Endocrine; Genetics; Metabolic syndrome; Migraine; Pathophysiology.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Genetics
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / diagnosis
  • Inflammation / drug therapy
  • Inflammation / genetics
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Migraine Disorders / diagnosis
  • Migraine Disorders / drug therapy
  • Migraine Disorders / genetics*
  • Migraine Disorders / pathology*
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics