Aetiological diagnosis of hyponatraemia in non-critical patients on total parenteral nutrition: A prospective multicentre study

Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr. 2021 Jul 6;S2530-0164(21)00123-3. doi: 10.1016/j.endinu.2021.02.006. Online ahead of print.
[Article in English, Spanish]

Abstract

Background: In patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN), the frequency of hyponatraemia is high. However, the causes of hyponatraemia in TPN have not been elucidated, although diagnosis is required for appropriate therapy. The aim of this study is to describe the aetiology of hyponatraemia in non-critical hospitalised patients receiving TPN.

Methods: Prospective multicentre study in 19 Spanish hospitals. Non-critically hyponatraemic patients receiving TPN and presenting hyponatraemia over a 9-month period were studied. Data collected included sex, age, previous comorbidities, and serum sodium levels (SNa) before and following TPN initiation. Parameters for study of hyponatraemia were also included: clinical volaemia, the presence of pain, nausea, gastrointestinal losses, diuretic use, oedema, renal function, plasma and urine osmolality, urinary electrolytes, cortisolaemia, and thyroid stimulating hormone.

Results: 162 patients were included, 53.7% males, age 66.4 (SD13.8) years. Volume status was evaluated in 142 (88%): 21 (14.8%) were hypovolaemic, 96 (67.6%) euvolaemic and 25 (17.6%) hypervolaemic. In 111/142 patients the analytical assessment of hyponatraemia was completed. Hypovolaemic hyponatraemia was secondary to GI losses in 10/111 (9%), and to diuretics in 3/111 (2.7%). Euvolaemic hyponatraemia was due to Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone secretion (SIADH) in 47/111 (42.4%), and to physiological stimuli of Arginine Vasopressin (AVP) secretion in 28/111 (25.2%). Hypervolaemic hyponatraemia was induced by heart failure in 19/111 (17.1%), cirrhosis of the liver in 4/111 (3.6%).

Conclusions: SIADH was the most frequent cause of hyponatraemia in patients receiving TPN. The second most frequent cause was physiological stimuli of AVP secretion induced by pain/nausea.

Keywords: Aetiology of hyponatraemia; Estímulo fisiológico de la secreción de AVP; Etiología de la hiponatremia; Nutrición parenteral; Parenteral nutrition; Physiological stimuli of AVP secretion; SIADH.