European guidelines (S3) on diagnosis and management of mucous membrane pemphigoid, initiated by the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology - Part I

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2021 Sep;35(9):1750-1764. doi: 10.1111/jdv.17397. Epub 2021 Jul 10.


This guideline on mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) has been elaborated by the Task Force for Autoimmune Blistering Diseases of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (EADV) with a contribution of physicians from all relevant disciplines and patient organizations. It is a S3 consensus-based guideline encompassing a systematic review of the literature until June 2019 in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. This first part covers methodology, the clinical definition of MMP, epidemiology, MMP subtypes, immunopathological characteristics, disease assessment and outcome scores. MMP describes a group of autoimmune skin and mucous membrane blistering diseases, characterized by a chronic course and by predominant involvement of the mucous membranes, such as the oral, ocular, nasal, nasopharyngeal, anogenital, laryngeal and oesophageal mucosa. MMP patients may present with mono- or multisite involvement. Patients' autoantibodies have been shown to be predominantly directed against BP180 (also called BPAG2, type XVII collagen), BP230, laminin 332 and type VII collagen, components of junctional adhesion complexes promoting epithelial stromal attachment in stratified epithelia. Various disease assessment scores are available, including the Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid Disease Area Index (MMPDAI), the Autoimmune Bullous Skin disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS), the 'Cicatrising Conjunctivitis Assessment Tool' and the Oral Disease Severity Score (ODSS). Patient-reported outcome measurements (PROMs), including DLQI, ABQOL and TABQOL, can be used for assessment of quality of life to evaluate the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions and monitor disease course.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Autoantibodies
  • Autoantigens
  • Dermatology*
  • Humans
  • Mucous Membrane
  • Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane* / diagnosis
  • Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane* / therapy
  • Pemphigoid, Bullous*
  • Quality of Life
  • Systematic Reviews as Topic
  • Venereology*


  • Autoantibodies
  • Autoantigens