Associations of Serum Magnesium With Insulin Resistance and Testosterone in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2021 Jun 23:12:683040. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2021.683040. eCollection 2021.


Objective: This article aimed to investigate whether serum magnesium is associated with insulin resistance index and testosterone level in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Materials and methods: Overall 1000 women with PCOS were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial and a cross-sectional analysis of the association of serum magnesium with glucose metabolism markers and testosterone was performed. Serum magnesium, glucose metabolism markers and testosterone were measured. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI). Multivariable linear regression and logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between serum magnesium, insulin resistance and testosterone.

Results: In comparative analyses, women with higher quartile of serum magnesium had significantly lower fasting glucose, HOMA-IR and testosterone. Multiple linear regression showed serum magnesium was independently negatively associated with insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR, testosterone and positively associated with QUICKI (P for trend <0.05) after adjusting confounding covariates. Logistic regression showed serum magnesium in quartile 1 and 2 were independently associated with insulin resistance status (Quartile 1: OR: 2.15, 95%CI: 1.35-3.40, P = 0.001; Quartile 2: OR: 1.90, 95%CI: 1.20-3.02, P = 0.006), while quartile 1 was marginally associated with hyperandrogenemia status (Quartile 1: OR: 1.45, 95%CI: 0.99-2.11, P = 0.055) after adjusting confounding covariates.

Conclusion: The current findings suggest that lower serum magnesium was associated with aggravated insulin resistance and higher testosterone levels among women with PCOS.

Keywords: PCOS; Serum magnesium; insulin resistance; nutrition; testosterone.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Female
  • Glucose / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Magnesium / blood*
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / blood*
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Testosterone / blood*
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose
  • Testosterone
  • Magnesium
  • Glucose