Structural and resting state functional connectivity beyond the cortex

Neuroimage. 2021 Oct 15:240:118379. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118379. Epub 2021 Jul 10.


Mapping the structural and functional connectivity of the central nervous system has become a key area within neuroimaging research. While detailed network structures across the entire brain have been probed using animal models, non-invasive neuroimaging in humans has thus far been dominated by cortical investigations. Beyond the cortex, subcortical nuclei have traditionally been less accessible due to their smaller size and greater distance from radio frequency coils. However, major neuroimaging developments now provide improved signal and the resolution required to study these structures. Here, we present an overview of the connectivity between the amygdala, brainstem, cerebellum, spinal cord and the rest of the brain. While limitations to their imaging and analyses remain, we also provide some recommendations and considerations for mapping brain connectivity beyond the cortex.

Keywords: Amygdala; Brainstem; Cerebellum; Connectivity; Spinal cord.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amygdala / diagnostic imaging
  • Animals
  • Brain Stem / diagnostic imaging
  • Cerebellum / diagnostic imaging
  • Connectome*
  • Default Mode Network
  • Diffusion Tensor Imaging / methods
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Signal-To-Noise Ratio
  • Spinal Cord / diagnostic imaging