The Association of Fried Meat Consumption With the Gut Microbiota and Fecal Metabolites and Its Impact on Glucose Homoeostasis, Intestinal Endotoxin Levels, and Systemic Inflammation: A Randomized Controlled-Feeding Trial

Diabetes Care. 2021 Sep;44(9):1970-1979. doi: 10.2337/dc21-0099. Epub 2021 Jul 12.


Objective: This randomized controlled-feeding trial aimed to determine the impact of fried meat intake on the gut microbiota and fecal cometabolites and whether such impacts influenced host glucose homoeostasis, intestinal endotoxin levels, and systemic inflammation.

Research design and methods: A total of 117 overweight adults were randomized into two groups. Fifty-nine participants were provided fried meat four times per week, and 58 participants were restricted from fried meat intake, while holding food group and nutrient compositions constant, for 4 weeks. The gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Glucose and insulin concentrations at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min of an oral glucose tolerance test, fecal microbiota-host cometabolite levels, and intestinal endotoxin and inflammation serum biomarker levels were measured. The area under the curve (AUC) for insulin, insulinogenic index (IGI), and muscle insulin resistance index (MIRI) were calculated.

Results: The participants who consumed fried meat had lower IGI values than the control subjects, but they had higher MIRI and AUC values of insulin and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-1β levels (P < 0.05). Fried meat intake lowered microbial community richness and decreased Lachnospiraceae and Flavonifractor abundances while increasing Dialister, Dorea, and Veillonella abundances (P FDR <0.05), provoking a significant shift in the fecal cometabolite profile, with lower 3-indolepropionic acid, valeric acid, and butyric acid concentrations and higher carnitine and methylglutaric acid concentrations (P FDR <0.05). Changes in these cometabolite levels were significantly associated with changes in IGI and MIRI values and LPS, FGF21, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10 levels (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Fried meat intake impaired glucose homoeostasis and increased intestinal endotoxin and systemic inflammation levels by influencing the gut microbiota and microbial-host cometabolites.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Endotoxins
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome*
  • Glucose
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Meat
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S


  • Endotoxins
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
  • Glucose

Associated data

  • ChiCTR/ChiCTR1900028562
  • figshare/10.2337/figshare.14731347