The linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) plays pivotal roles in regulating lymphocyte activation, inflammation, and cell death. This is highlighted by the fact that patients with mutations in LUBAC catalytic subunit HOIP suffer from autoinflammation combined with immunodeficiency. Although defective development of T and B cells resulting from HOIP deficiency in adaptive immunity can explain immunodeficiency, the pathogenesis of autoinflammation is not clear. In this study, we found that dendritic cell (DC)-specific deletion of HOIP resulted in spontaneous inflammation, indicating the essential role of HOIP in maintaining DC homeostasis. Although HOIP deficiency in DCs did not affect TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation, it enhanced TNF-α-induced apoptosis and necroptosis. However, crossing HoipDC KO mice with TNFR1-knockout mice surprisingly could not rescue the systematic inflammation, suggesting that the autoinflammation is not due to the effect of HOIP on TNF-α signaling. In contrast, treatment of HoipDC KO mice with antibiotics reduced the inflammation, implying that TLR signaling may contribute to the inflammatory phenotype found in HoipDC KO mice. Consistently, we found that LPS induced more cell death and significantly higher levels of IL-1α and IL-1β in HoipDC KO cells. Importantly, MyD88 deficiency rescued the inflammatory phenotype in HoipDC KO mice. Together, these findings reveal the indispensable function of HOIP in maintaining DC homeostasis, and MyD88-dependent proinflammatory signal plays a substantial role in the pathogenesis of human autoinflammation associated with HOIP mutations.
Copyright © 2021 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.