In this article we report data collected to evaluate the pathomechanistic effect of acute anaerobic metabolism in the polytraumatized patient and its subsequent effect on fracture nonunion; see "Base Deficit ≥6 within 24 Hours of Injury is a Risk Factor for Fracture Nonunion in the Polytraumatized Patient" (Sardesai et al., 2021) . Data was collected on patients age ≥16 with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) >16 that presented between 2013-2018 who sustained a fracture of the tibia or femur distal to the femoral neck. Patients presenting to our institution greater than 24 hours post-injury and those with less than three months follow-up were excluded. Medical charts were reviewed to collect patient demographic information and known nonunion risk-factors, including smoking, alcohol use, and diabetes. In addition, detailed injury characteristics to quantify injury magnitude including ISS, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) at admission, and ICU length of stay were recorded. ISS values were obtained from our institutional trauma database where they are entered by individuals trained in ISS calculations. Associated fracture-related features including fracture location, soft-tissue injury (open vs. closed fracture), vascular injury, and compartment syndrome were recorded. Finally, vital signs, base deficit (BD), and blood transfusions over 24 hours from admission were recorded. We routinely measure BD and less consistently measure serum lactate in trauma patients at the time of presentation or during resuscitation. BD values are automatically produced by our laboratory with any arterial blood gas order, and we recorded BD values from the medical record. Clinical notes and radiographs were reviewed to confirm fracture union versus nonunion and assess for deep infection at the fracture site. Patients were categorized as having a deep infection if they were treated operatively for the infection prior to fracture healing or classification as a nonunion. Nonunion was defined by failure of progressive healing on sequential radiographs and/or surgical treatment for nonunion repair at least six months post-injury.
Keywords: Base deficit; Fracture healing; Nonunion; Polytrauma; Shock.
© 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.