Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is zoonotic disease and is one of the most important foodborne parasitic diseases globally. The prevalence in humans is highly variable, being influenced by cultural habits, socioeconomic, and environmental conditions. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of T. gondii infection in humans on the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, Pernambuco State, Brazil, and to identify the risk factors associated with this infection. The seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G anti-T. gondii antibodies was 50.4% (172/341, 95% CI: 45.2%-55.7%). Factors associated with the infection were consumption of well water or rainwater (odds ratio [OR]: 2.43, p=0.020) and consumption of game meat (OR: 1.80, p=0.026). This is the first study to provide epidemiological information of T. gondii infection among the residents of the Island of Fernando de Noronha, revealing a considerable antibody seroprevalence in this population. This study provides information for the adoption of prevention and control measures in island environments.