Peripheral inflammation, particularly mediated by monocytes, can cause neuroinflammation in Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated the mechanism of TLR2-induced cytokine impairment in peripheral monocytes from PD patients and the association between the presence of CD14+ TLR10+ monocytes and PD severity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from PD patients and healthy individuals were evaluated for TLR expression on monocyte subsets (CD14 and CD16 expression) using flow cytometry. Moreover, cytokines were evaluated using flow cytometry after stimulation with Pam3 Cys (TLR2/TLR1 agonist) in the absence or presence of neutralizing antibodies to TLR10. The severity of PD was assessed using the unified PD rating scale (UPDRS) and motor activity, anxiety (BAI), depression (BDI), and fatigue (PD Fatigue Scale-16) scales. The frequency of CD14+ TLR10+ monocytes and expression intensity of TLR2 and TLR10 were higher in patients with PD than healthy individuals. The frequency of intermediate monocytes (CD14++ CD16+ ) was not significantly increased in patients with PD, but was the main monocyte subset expressing TLR10. The TLR2/TLR1-impaired cytokine production (IL-6, TNFα, IL-8, and IL-10) in PD patients was reversed by neutralizing TLR10. The high frequency of total CD14+ TLR10+ monocytes was associated with a reduction in the severity of PD according to the evaluation of motor and nonmotor symptoms. Peripheral monocytes from patients with PD showed phenotypic and functional alterations. The expression of TLR10 on monocytes can protect against PD by controlling TLR2-induced cytokine production. Furthermore, data suggested that a low frequency of CD14+ TLR10+ monocytes indicates the severity of PD. The results identified new opportunities for the development of novel PD neuroprotective therapies.
Keywords: Parkinson's disease; RRID:AB_2572599; RRID:AB_314189; RRID:AB_468598; RRID:AB_468615; TLR10; TLR2; cytokines; monocytes.
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