Study objectives: To examine the effectiveness of endometrial sampling for preoperative detection of uterine leiomyosarcoma in women undergoing hysterectomy, identify factors associated with missed diagnosis, and compare the outcomes of patients who had a preoperative diagnosis with those of patients who had a missed diagnosis.
Design: Retrospective cohort study using linked data from the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System and New York State Cancer Registry from 2003 to 2015.
Setting: Inpatient and outpatient encounters at civilian hospitals and ambulatory surgery centers in New York State.
Patients: Women with uterine leiomyosarcoma who underwent a hysterectomy and a preoperative endometrial sampling within 90 days before the hysterectomy.
Interventions: Endometrial sampling.
Measurements and main results: A total of 79 patients with uterine leiomyosarcoma met the sample eligibility criteria. Of these patients, 46 (58.2%) were diagnosed preoperatively, and 33 (41.8%) were diagnosed postoperatively. Patients in the 2 groups did not differ significantly in age, race/ethnicity, bleeding symptoms, or comorbidities assessed. In multivariable regression analysis, women who had endometrial sampling performed with hysteroscopy (compared with women who had endeometrial sampling performed without hysteroscopy) had a higher likelihood of preoperative diagnosis (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 3.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-6.42). Patients with localized stage (vs distant stage) or tumor size >11 cm (vs <8 cm) were less likely to be diagnosed preoperatively (aRR 0.50; 95% CI, 0.28-0.89, and aRR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.30-0.99, respectively). Supracervical hysterectomy was not performed in any of the patients whose leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed preoperatively compared with 21.2% of the patients who were diagnosed postoperatively (p = .002).
Conclusion: Endometrial sampling detected leiomyosarcoma preoperatively in 58.2% of the patients. The use of hysteroscopy with endometrial sampling improved preoperative detection of leiomyosarcoma by threefold. Patients with a missed diagnosis had a higher risk of undergoing suboptimal surgical management at the time of their index surgery.
Keywords: Endometrial sampling; Hysterectomy; Hysteroscopy; Leiomyosarcoma.
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