Pressurized Intraperitoneal Aerosol Chemotherapy-Related Clinical Trials in the Treatment of Peritoneal Metastases

Oncology. 2021;99(9):601-610. doi: 10.1159/000516959. Epub 2021 Jul 15.


Introduction: Pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) is a treatment option for patients with peritoneal metastases. We evaluated the current status of ongoing prospective clinical trials investigating PIPAC to provide an overview and predict trends in this field.

Methods: All 367,494 records of clinical trials registered at were searched for trials dealing with PIPAC. Active or unpublished trials were further analyzed.

Results: In total, 22 clinical trials were identified and selected for further analyses. Most trials had a single-arm design and were phase I or II. No phase III trials were registered. Academic centers were recorded as primary sponsors in the majority of trials (63.6%). Every year, between 2 and 5 new trials were initiated. In 17 trials (81.8%), PIPAC was used in a palliative setting only, 2 trials performed PIPAC in a neoadjuvant setting, and 2 trials performed PIPAC in an adjuvant setting. Six different drugs (doxorubicin, cisplatin, oxaliplatin, nab-paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, and docetaxel) were used in these clinical trials. Most trials investigated the efficacy (n = 15) or safety (n = 7) of PIPAC therapies.

Conclusions: The results of ongoing clinical trials will bring specific information on indications for PIPAC as well as the impact of PIPAC on quality of life and overall survival.

Keywords:; Ongoing prospective clinical trials; Peritoneal malignancy therapy; Peritoneal metastases; Pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy.

MeSH terms

  • Aerosols / therapeutic use*
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage*
  • Humans
  • Infusions, Parenteral
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary*
  • Pressure
  • Prospective Studies


  • Aerosols