Objective: Myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion (MT) is a key procedure in otorhinolaryngology and can be trained using simulation models. We aimed to systematically review the literature on models for simulation-based training and assessment of MT and supporting educational evidence.
Databases reviewed: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Directory of Open Access Journals.
Methods: Inclusion criteria were MT training and/or skills assessment using all types of training modalities and learners. Studies were divided into 1) descriptive and 2) educational interventional/observational in the analysis. For descriptive studies, we provide an overview of available models including materials and cost. Educational studies were appraised using Kirkpatrick's level of educational outcomes, Messick's framework of validity, and a structured quality assessment tool.
Results: Forty-six studies were included consisting of 21 descriptive studies and 25 educational studies. Thirty-one unique physical and three virtual reality simulation models were identified. The studies report moderate to high realism of the different simulators and trainees and educators perceive them beneficial in training MT skills. Overall, simulation-based training is found to reduce procedure time and errors, and increase performance as measured using different assessment tools. None of the studies used a contemporary validity framework and the current educational evidence is limited.
Conclusion: Numerous simulation models and assessment tools have been described in the literature but educational evidence and systematic implementation into training curricula is scarce. There is especially a need to establish the effect of simulation-based training of MT in transfer to the operating room and on patient outcomes.
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