Purpose: To analyse the efficacy and safety of the transsphenoidal microsurgical approach with open sella technique (OST) for the treatment of pituitary adenoma (PA) with suprasellar extension.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 2305 consecutive patients with PA who underwent their first surgery through the transsphenoidal microsurgical approach at our department between 1990 and 2018. Focusing on tumours with suprasellar extension, in particular, grade B, C and D adenomas according to Wilson-Hardy's classification, 376 patients who received the OST surgery were identified. Outcomes and complications were evaluated and compared with those obtained in patients who underwent a standard transsphenoidal approach (TSM).
Results: Two-hundred and sixty-four of 376 patients (70.2%) were found to be suffering from a non-functioning pituitary adenoma, whereas 112 of 376 patients (29.8%) from a hormone-secreting PA. The mean craniocaudal diameter of the tumor was 30.6 ± 0.3 mm (range, 21-75 mm) and 151 patients (40.1%) had a cavernous sinus invasion too. An overall surgical remission rate of 50.3% was achieved in the OST group, whereas the recurrence rate was 10.5%. Patients were followed for a mean period of 68 ± 1.4 months (range, 6-96 months). Less postoperative intrasellar haemorrhages have been recorded in the OST group than the TSM one (1.1% vs. 4.6%, p = 0.02).
Conclusions: In experienced hands, OST represents an effective and safe treatment strategy for PA with suprasellar extension.
Keywords: Pituitary adenoma; open sella; pituitary surgery; surgical complications; transsphenoidal approach.