Approaches to Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

Curr Oncol Rep. 2021 Jul 16;23(9):105. doi: 10.1007/s11912-021-01091-1.


Purpose of review: Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is a heterogenous malignancy with high recurrence and progression rates, which necessitate uniform recommendations for diagnosis and management. Herein, we review the literature, with an emphasis on guidelines and contemporary diagnostic techniques and interventions.

Recent findings: Guidelines around the world have adopted a schema which risk-stratify cases at diagnosis, to offer evidence-based treatment and surveillance recommendations. Enhanced endoscopic technologies can improve detection of NMIBC and reduce recurrence. The present Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) shortage in the USA has led to new strategies to prioritize the most high-risk cases. The entity of BCG-unresponsive high-risk NMIBC remains a challenge to manage, with multiple novel treatments under investigation; fortunately, new therapies have been approved, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, and others are showing tremendous promise. The standardization of NMIBC management, with evolving detection techniques and therapeutics, offers great potential to improve patient outcomes and survivorship.

Keywords: BCG; Bladder cancer; Intravesical therapy; Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer; Survivorship.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Cystoscopy / methods*
  • Humans
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Patient Care Team
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Risk Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Urinary Bladder / pathology*
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy*