Background: Medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) improve outcomes for pregnant women and infants. Our primary aim was to examine disparities in maternal MOUD receipt by family sociodemographic characteristics. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included mother-infant dyads with Medicaid-covered deliveries in Tennessee from 2009 to 2016. First, we examined family sociodemographic characteristics - including race/ethnicity, rurality, mother's primary language and education level, and whether paternity was recorded in birth records - and newborn outcomes by type of maternal opioid use. Second, among pregnant women with OUD, we used logistic regression to measure disparities in receipt of MOUD by family sociodemographic characteristics including interactions between characteristics. Results: Our cohort from Medicaid-covered deliveries consisted of 314,965 mother-infant dyads, and 4.2 percent were exposed to opioids through maternal use. Among dyads with maternal OUD, MOUD receipt was associated with lower rates of preterm and very preterm birth. Logistic regression adjusted for family sociodemographic characteristics showed that pregnant women with OUD in rural versus urban areas (aOR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.60-0.72) and who were aged ≥35 years versus ≤25 years (aOR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.64-0.89) were less likely to have received MOUD. Families in which the mother's primary language was English (aOR: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.24-4.91) and paternity was recorded on the birth certificate (aOR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.19-1.42) were more likely to have received MOUD. Regardless of high school degree attainment, non-Hispanic Black versus non-Hispanic White race was associated with lower likelihood of MOUD receipt. Hispanic race was associated with lower likelihood of MOUD receipt among women without a high school degree. Conclusions: Among a large cohort of pregnant women, we found disparities in receipt of MOUD among non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and rural pregnant women. As policymakers consider strategies to improve access to MOUD, they should consider targeted approaches to address these disparities.
Keywords: Opioid-related disorders; neonatology; obstetrics; social determinants of health.