All-Organic Flexible Ferroelectret Nanogenerator with Fabric-Based Electrodes for Self-Powered Body Area Networks

Small. 2021 Aug;17(33):e2103161. doi: 10.1002/smll.202103161. Epub 2021 Jul 16.


Due to their electrically polarized air-filled internal pores, optimized ferroelectrets exhibit a remarkable piezoelectric response, making them suitable for energy harvesting. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) ferroelectret films are laminated with two fluorinated-ethylene-propylene (FEP) copolymer films and internally polarized by corona discharge. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)-coated spandex fabric is employed for the electrodes to assemble an all-organic ferroelectret nanogenerator (FENG). The outer electret-plus-electrode double layers form active device layers with deformable electric dipoles that strongly contribute to the overall piezoelectric response in the proposed concept of wearable nanogenerators. Thus, the FENG with spandex electrodes generates a short-circuit current which is twice as high as that with aluminum electrodes. The stacking sequence spandex/FEP/ePTFE/FEP/ePTFE/FEP/spandex with an average pore size of 3 µm in the ePTFE films yields the best overall performance, which is also demonstrated by the displacement-versus-electric-field loop results. The all-organic FENGs are stable up to 90 °C and still perform well 9 months after being polarized. An optimized FENG makes three light emitting diodes (LEDs) blink twice with the energy generated during a single footstep. The new all-organic FENG can thus continuously power wearable electronic devices and is easily integrated, for example, with clothing, other textiles, or shoe insoles.

Keywords: (PEDOT:PSS)-coated porous fabric electrodes; all-organic ferroelectret nanogenerator (FENG); all-organic piezoelectric nanogenerator (PENG); expanded polytetrafluoroethylene ferroelectret; micro-energy harvesting; wearable electronics.

MeSH terms

  • Electricity
  • Electrodes
  • Polymers
  • Textiles*
  • Wearable Electronic Devices*


  • Polymers