Inflammatory bowel diseases, principally Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are multifactorial chronic conditions. Alterations in gut microbial patterns partly affect disease onset and severity. Moreover, the evolution of dietary patterns, and their effect on gut microbial behaviour, have been shown to play a crucial role in disease processes. This Viewpoint reviews the role of dietary patterns, their influence on the structure and function of the gut microbiome, and their effects on inflammation and immunity in individuals with inflammatory bowel disease. We also discuss innovative dietary intervention strategies, summarise findings that have been used to develop recommendations for clinical practice, and provide suggestions for the design of future studies for development of precision nutrition in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
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