Fibrolamellar carcinoma: An entity all its own

Curr Probl Cancer. 2021 Aug;45(4):100770. doi: 10.1016/j.currproblcancer.2021.100770. Epub 2021 Jul 1.


Fibrolamellar carcinoma (FLC) is a rare malignant entity arising from the liver and primarily affecting patients in late adolescence and young adulthood. FLC tumors are characterized by their unique histologic features and an only recently discovered genomic alteration: a chimeric fusion protein found in nearly all tumors. The rarity of these tumors coupled with the only recent acknowledgement of this genomic abnormality has likely led to disease under-recognition and de-prioritization of collaborative efforts aimed at establishing an evidence-guided standard of care. Surgical resection undoubtedly remains a mainstay of therapy and a necessity for cure but given the incidence of metastatic disease at diagnosis and high rates of distant relapse, systemic therapies remain a key component of disease control. There are few systemic therapies that have demonstrated proven benefit. Recent efforts have galvanized around single-institute or small consortia-based studies specifically focused on the enrollment of patients with FLC or use of agents with biologic rationale. This review will outline the current state of FLC epidemiology, histology, biology and trialed therapies derived from available published literature.

Trial registration: NCT04380545 NCT04134559 NCT04248569.

Keywords: Carcinoma; DNAJB1-PRKACA; Fibrolamellar; Hepatocellular; Surgery; Therapy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular* / epidemiology
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular* / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular* / therapy
  • Humans

Supplementary concepts

  • Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma

Associated data