MCM-2, Ki-67, and EGFR downregulated expression levels in advanced stage laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

Sci Rep. 2021 Jul 16;11(1):14607. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-94077-9.


We present the conceptual study investigated the capacity of minichromosome maintenance-2 (MCM-2), Ki-67, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to assess the severity and progression of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) disease and to study the correlations among these markers. A total of 30 patients with LSCC with immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining for MCM-2, Ki-67 and EGFR were examined. Mean expression levels of the three markers were evaluated for comparing between early and advanced stages of LSCC. The mean MCM-2, Ki-67, and EGFR expression levels were significantly decreased in advanced-stage compared with early-stage LSCC. Pearson correlation analysis showed a statistically significant correlation between the MCM-2 and Ki-67. Regarding subgroup analyses, MCM-2, Ki-67, and EGFR showed significant differences between early- and advanced-stage LSCC with non-recurrence, while for the recurrent subgroup LSCC, only MCM-2 revealed a significant difference between early- and advanced-stage LSCC. Altogether, these results support the role for downregulation of MCM-2, Ki-67 and EGFR in advanced-stage LSCC and correlation of MCM-2 and Ki-67 expressions that would be a promising strategy to predict prognosis of LSCC including severity and progression. We contextualize our findings and advocate the position of the biological markers, especially MCM-2, as an emerging evaluation tool for LSCC disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology
  • Disease Progression
  • ErbB Receptors / metabolism
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism*
  • Laryngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Laryngeal Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2 / metabolism*
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Prognosis
  • Severity of Illness Index


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Ki-67 Antigen
  • EGFR protein, human
  • ErbB Receptors
  • MCM2 protein, human
  • Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2