Aims: The impact of periodontal inflammation on lipid metabolism is controversial. This study aimed to investigate the association between full-mouth periodontal inflammation and serum lipid levels.
Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, we performed periodontal and bacteriological examinations during medical checkup on 131 subjects. The association between the periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA) and the lipid markers was analyzed by multiple linear regression, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and body mass index.
Results: Overall, 118 medically healthy participants were analyzed. The proportions of none, mild, moderate, and severe periodontitis were 37.3%, 32.2%, 25.4%, and 5.1%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly higher in participants with the lowest tertile of PISA values (PISA low, coefficient: 7.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63, 14.26, p = .01) compared to those in other tertiles (PISA high). Low-density/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios were significantly lower in the PISA-low group than the PISA-high group (coefficient: -0.26 and -0.30; 95% CI: -0.50, -0.02, and -0.59, -0.0002; p = .04 and .0498). Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level, but not serum Porphyromonas gingivalis antibody titer, partly explained the association between PISA and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. A significant interaction between female sex and PISA values toward high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was detected.
Conclusion: Periodontal inflammation was inversely associated with higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, especially in females. Elevated serum C-reactive protein partly explained this association.
Keywords: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; lipid metabolism; periodontal inflamed surface area; periodontitis.
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