Development, characterization and evaluation of in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Withania coagulans extract and extract loaded microemulsion

Pak J Pharm Sci. 2021 Jan;34(1(Special)):473-479.


Herbal medicines are gaining importance due to more advantages and less toxic effects. Withania coagulans is natural plant that possesses multiple activities. Its main constituents are withaferin and withanolide. The purpose of present study is to identify main constituent of Withania coagulans and preparation of extract loaded micro emulsions. Withania coagulans fruit extract in methanol/chloroform (1:1) was collected in semisolid form and LCMS was done to identify active compound, and then micro emulsions were prepared using Tween 80: Transcutol (1:1) Frankincense oil, and water to enhance its stability for topical application. Five formulations were prepared by Pseudo ternary phase diagram and evaluated for pH, conductivity, viscosity, drug contents, particle size analysis, and polydispersity. Withania coagulans extract was evaluated for anti-bacterial activity against (Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, and S. typhi) and anti-fungal activity against (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger). Anti-inflammatory activity was checked for both extract and Extract based micro emulsion. Among all five formulations F5 shows best physiochemical properties with small globule size, good stability and high anti-inflammatory activity. Based on these results it was concluded that Withania coagulans extract loaded micro emulsions can be used for topical application with promising anti-inflammatory activities. Data for in-vivo studies for checking the topical effect of Withania coagulans is provided elsewhere.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Topical
  • Anti-Infective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Aspergillus niger / drug effects
  • Candida albicans / drug effects
  • Emulsions
  • Escherichia coli / drug effects
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Salmonella typhi / drug effects
  • Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects
  • Withania*
  • Withanolides


  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Emulsions
  • Plant Extracts
  • Withanolides