Residual periodontal pocket treatment with Er:YAG laser-assisted comprehensive periodontal pocket therapy: a retrospective study

Clin Oral Investig. 2021 Jul 19. doi: 10.1007/s00784-021-04054-9. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Objectives: Recently, the application of erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser has been increasing in periodontal therapy. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the safety and effectiveness of a novel pocket therapy using Er:YAG laser in combination with conventional mechanical scaling and root planing treatment (Er:YAG laser-assisted comprehensive periodontal pocket therapy).

Methods: Forty sites in 29 elderly patients having residual periodontal pockets of ≥ 5 mm depth were treated by curette and Er:YAG laser from 2006 to 2009. After root debridement by curette, laser irradiation was performed on the root surfaces. Then, inflamed connective tissue on the inner gingival surface and on the bone surface/within extant bone defects was thoroughly debrided by curette and laser. Furthermore, in most cases, removal of the outer epithelium and coagulation of the blood clot in the pocket entrance were additionally performed with laser. Clinical parameters were evaluated before and 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment.

Results: With Er:YAG laser-assisted pocket therapy, debridement of pockets was thoroughly and safely performed, and favorable clinical improvements were observed in most cases, without any adverse side effects and complications. After 1 year, probing pocket depth significantly decreased from 6.4 ± 1.4 to 3.5 ± 1.3 mm (p < 0.001, 3.0 mm reduction), and clinical attachment level significantly decreased from 7.5 ± 1.6 to 5.2 ± 1.9 mm (p < 0.001, 2.3 mm gain).

Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that Er:YAG laser-assisted therapy is useful for the treatment of residual pockets as a minimally invasive flapless surgery.

Clinical relevance: Er:YAG laser-assisted comprehensive pocket therapy reduces the necessity of more conventional surgical therapies.

Keywords: Laser(s); Non-surgical periodontal therapy; Periodontal surgery; Periodontitis; Scaling and root planing.