Aims: Non-compaction cardiomyopathy is a devastating genetic disease caused by insufficient consolidation of ventricular wall muscle that can result in inadequate cardiac performance. Despite being the third most common cardiomyopathy, the mechanisms underlying the disease, including the cell types involved, are poorly understood. We have previously shown that endothelial cell-specific deletion of the chromatin remodeller gene Ino80 results in defective coronary vessel development that leads to ventricular non-compaction in embryonic mouse hearts. We aimed to identify candidate angiocrines expressed by endocardial and endothelial cells (ECs) in wildtype and LVNC conditions in Tie2Cre;Ino80fl/fltransgenic embryonic mouse hearts, and test the effect of these candidates on cardiomyocyte proliferation and maturation.
Methods and results: We used single-cell RNA-sequencing to characterize endothelial and endocardial defects in Ino80-deficient hearts. We observed a pathological endocardial cell population in the non-compacted hearts and identified multiple dysregulated angiocrine factors that dramatically affected cardiomyocyte behaviour. We identified Col15a1 as a coronary vessel-secreted angiocrine factor, downregulated by Ino80-deficiency, that functioned to promote cardiomyocyte proliferation. Furthermore, mutant endocardial and endothelial cells up-regulated expression of secreted factors, such as Tgfbi, Igfbp3, Isg15, and Adm, which decreased cardiomyocyte proliferation and increased maturation.
Conclusions: These findings support a model where coronary endothelial cells normally promote myocardial compaction through secreted factors, but that endocardial and endothelial cells can secrete factors that contribute to non-compaction under pathological conditions.
Keywords: Angiocrine factors; Cardiomyocyte maturation; Cardiomyocyte proliferation; Left ventricular non-compaction; Single-cell RNA-sequencing.
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