How rural immersion training influences rural work orientation of medical students: Theory building through realist evaluation

Med Teach. 2021 Jul 19;1-8. doi: 10.1080/0142159X.2021.1948520. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Aim: To develop theory about how contexts and mechanisms interact to contribute to openness to future rural practice by medical students undertaking immersive rural training.

Methods: A realist evaluation based on RAMESES II protocol. We interviewed 23 students exploring Contexts (C) which were external (place-based) and internal (the student's characteristics), Mechanisms (M) (that drive a response) and Outcomes (O) (openness to rural work).

Results: 'Openness to rural work' related to: a desire to live rurally, work in rural medicine, or consider this as a possibility. This was triggered by responses to experience in rural places of an aspirational, intellectual and emotional nature (mechanisms). Students most affected were those with a strong motivation to help others and who value teamwork. Students with clearly envisaged career paths suited to metropolitan areas, or those retaining/prioritising strong social and community ties in metropolitan areas were less likely to commit to future rural work.

Conclusion: Our theory indicates multi-level stimuli activates openness. Implications are that rural immersion programs could select students with an orientation towards teamwork, without pre-set professional ideation, and with a strong commitment to helping others. Experiencing rural immersion will trigger aspirational, intellectual and emotional responses leading to rural work openness for such students.

Keywords: Evaluation; General Learning Outcomes; Medical Education Research; Medicine; Undergraduate.