External stimuli-responsive nanoparticles for spatially and temporally controlled delivery of CRISPR-Cas genome editors

Biomater Sci. 2021 Sep 14;9(18):6012-6022. doi: 10.1039/d1bm00558h.

Abstract

The CRISPR-Cas9 system is a powerful tool for genome editing, which can potentially lead to new therapies for genetic diseases. To date, various viral and non-viral delivery systems have been developed for the delivery of CRISPR-Cas9 in vivo. However, spatially and temporally controlled genome editing is needed to enhance the specificity in organs/tissues and minimize the off-target effects of editing. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art non-viral vectors that exploit external stimuli (i.e., light, magnetic field, and ultrasound) for spatially and temporally controlled genome editing and their in vitro and in vivo applications.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biological Phenomena*
  • CRISPR-Cas Systems / genetics
  • Gene Editing
  • Gene Transfer Techniques
  • Nanoparticles*