Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in 45,965 adults from the general population of the United Kingdom

Nat Microbiol. 2021 Sep;6(9):1140-1149. doi: 10.1038/s41564-021-00947-3. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Abstract

We report that in a cohort of 45,965 adults, who were receiving either the ChAdOx1 or the BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, in those who had no prior infection with SARS-CoV-2, seroconversion rates and quantitative antibody levels after a single dose were lower in older individuals, especially in those aged >60 years. Two vaccine doses achieved high responses across all ages. Antibody levels increased more slowly and to lower levels with a single dose of ChAdOx1 compared with a single dose of BNT162b2, but waned following a single dose of BNT162b2 in older individuals. In descriptive latent class models, we identified four responder subgroups, including a 'low responder' group that more commonly consisted of people aged >75 years, males and individuals with long-term health conditions. Given our findings, we propose that available vaccines should be prioritized for those not previously infected and that second doses should be prioritized for individuals aged >60 years. Further data are needed to better understand the extent to which quantitative antibody responses are associated with vaccine-mediated protection.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Antibody Formation
  • COVID-19 / immunology*
  • COVID-19 / prevention & control
  • COVID-19 / virology
  • COVID-19 Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • COVID-19 Vaccines / immunology*
  • Child
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin G / immunology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • SARS-CoV-2 / genetics
  • SARS-CoV-2 / immunology*
  • United Kingdom
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Antibodies, Viral
  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • BNT162 vaccine