Biochemical composition, transmission and diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2

Biosci Rep. 2021 Aug 27;41(8):BSR20211238. doi: 10.1042/BSR20211238.


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a life-threatening respiratory infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS-CoV-2), a novel human coronavirus. COVID-19 was declared a pandemic by World Health Organization in March 2020 for its continuous and rapid spread worldwide. Rapidly emerging COVID-19 epicenters and mutants of concerns have created mammoth chaos in healthcare sectors across the globe. With over 185 million infections and approximately 4 million deaths globally, COVID-19 continues its unchecked spread despite all mitigation measures. Until effective and affordable antiretroviral drugs are made available and the population at large is vaccinated, timely diagnosis of the infection and adoption of COVID-appropriate behavior remains major tool available to curtail the still escalating COVID-19 pandemic. This review provides an updated overview of various techniques of COVID-19 testing in human samples and also discusses, in brief, the biochemical composition and mode of transmission of the SARS-CoV-2. Technological advancement in various molecular, serological and immunological techniques including mainly the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), CRISPR, lateral flow assays (LFAs), and immunosensors are reviewed.

Keywords: COVID- 19; ELISA; RT-PCR; SARS-CoV-2; Transmission.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19 / diagnosis*
  • COVID-19 / therapy
  • COVID-19 / transmission
  • COVID-19 / virology
  • COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing
  • COVID-19 Serological Testing
  • COVID-19 Testing*
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions
  • Humans
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • SARS-CoV-2 / genetics
  • SARS-CoV-2 / immunology
  • SARS-CoV-2 / pathogenicity*