American Academy of Ophthalmology Recommendations on Screening for Endogenous Candida Endophthalmitis

Ophthalmology. 2022 Jan;129(1):73-76. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2021.07.015. Epub 2021 Jul 19.


The American Academy of Ophthalmology evaluated the practice of routine screening for intraocular infection from Candida septicemia. In the United States, ophthalmologists are consulted in the hospital to screen for intraocular infection routinely for patients with Candida bloodstream infections. This practice was established in the era before the use of systemic antifungal medication and the establishment of definitions of ocular disease with candidemia. A recent systematic review found a rate of less than 1% of routinely screened patients with endophthalmitis from Candida septicemia. Other studies found higher rates of endophthalmitis but had limitations in terms of inaccuracies in ocular disease classification, lack of vitreous biopsies, selection biases, and lack of longer-term visual outcomes. Some studies attributed ocular findings to Candida infections, rather than other comorbidities. Studies also have not demonstrated differences in medical management that are modified for eye disease treatment; therefore, therapy should be dictated by the underlying Candida infection, rather than be tailored on the basis of ocular findings. In summary, the Academy does not recommend a routine ophthalmologic consultation after laboratory findings of systemic Candida septicemia, which appears to be a low-value practice. An ophthalmologic consultation is a reasonable practice for a patient with signs or symptoms suggestive of ocular infection regardless of Candida septicemia.

Keywords: Candida; Policy; Screening.

MeSH terms

  • Academies and Institutes / standards*
  • Candidemia / diagnosis*
  • Candidemia / microbiology
  • Endophthalmitis / diagnosis*
  • Endophthalmitis / microbiology
  • Eye Infections, Fungal / diagnosis*
  • Eye Infections, Fungal / microbiology
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Ophthalmology / organization & administration*
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic*
  • Risk Factors
  • United States