Cera Flava Alleviates Atopic Dermatitis by Activating Skin Barrier Function via Immune Regulation

Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Jul 14;22(14):7531. doi: 10.3390/ijms22147531.


Cera Flava (CF), a natural extract obtained from beehives, is widely used in dermatological products owing to its wound healing, wrinkle reduction, UV-protective, and skin cell turnover stimulation effects. However, its effect on AD-like skin lesions is unknown. In this study, we used a mouse model of AD to evaluate the effects of CP at the molecular and phenotypic levels. Topical house dust mite (HDM) sensitization and challenge were performed on the dorsal skin of NC/Nga mice to induce AD-like cutaneous lesions, phenotypes, and immunologic responses. The topical application of CF for 6 weeks relieved HDM-induced AD-like phenotypes, as quantified by the dermatitis severity score, scratching frequency, and skin moisture. CP decreased immunoglobulin E, histamine, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin levels. Histopathological analysis showed that CF decreased epidermal thickening and the number of mast cells. CF attenuated HDM-induced changes in the expression of skin barrier-related proteins. Furthermore, CF decreased the mRNA levels of inflammatory factors, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-13, IL-8, TARC, MDC, and RANTES, in dorsal skin tissue via the TLR2/MyD88/TRAF6/ERK pathway. CF influences skin barrier function and immune regulation to alleviate AD symptoms. It may therefore be an effective alternative to topical steroids for the treatment of AD.

Keywords: Cera Flava; atopic dermatitis; house dust mite; immune regulation; skin barrier function.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Dermatitis, Atopic / chemically induced
  • Dermatitis, Atopic / drug therapy*
  • Dermatitis, Atopic / immunology
  • Dermatitis, Atopic / pathology
  • Histamine / metabolism
  • Immunoglobulin E / metabolism
  • Immunologic Factors / metabolism
  • Inflammation / etiology
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Inflammation / prevention & control*
  • Mice
  • Pyroglyphidae
  • Skin / drug effects*
  • Skin / immunology
  • Skin / metabolism
  • Skin / pathology
  • Waxes / pharmacology*


  • Immunologic Factors
  • Waxes
  • beeswax
  • Immunoglobulin E
  • Histamine