For the long-term operation of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), online monitoring and feedback control of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) can be used to control the emissions to national or regional standards. In this study, 500 PCDD/F samples were determined by thermal desorption gas chromatography coupled to tunable-laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TD-GC-TLI-TOFMS) for 168 h. PCDD/F emissions range from 0.01 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 to 2.37 ng I-TEQ/Nm3, with 44% of values below 0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 (the national standard). In addition, the temperature of the furnace outlet, bed pressure, and oxygen content are considered as key operating parameters among the 13 operating parameters comprising four temperature parameters, four pressure parameters, four flow parameters, and oxygen content. More specifically, maintaining the furnace outlet temperature to be higher than 800 °C, or bed pressure higher than 13 kPa, or the oxygen content stably and above 10% are effective methods for reducing PCDD/F emissions. According to the analysis of the Pearson coefficients and maximal information coefficients, there is no significant correlation between operating parameters and PCDD/F I-TEQ. Only when there is a significant change in one of these factors will the PCDD/F emissions also change accordingly. The feedback control of PCDD/F emissions is realized by adjusting the furnace outlet temperature, bed temperature, and bed pressure to control the PCDD/F to be less than 0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm3.
Keywords: PCDD/F; diagnosis; feedback control; incineration; online monitoring.