ESI-MS/MS Analysis of Phenolic Compounds from Aeonium arboreum Leaf Extracts and Evaluation of their Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities

Molecules. 2021 Jul 17;26(14):4338. doi: 10.3390/molecules26144338.


Aeonium is a genus of succulents belonging to the Crassulaceae family. Their importance in traditional medicine has stimulated both pharmacological and chemical research. In this study, we optimized extraction, separation, and analytical conditions using a high performance liquid chromatographic method coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry by the negative mode (HPLC-ESI-MS) in order to, for the first time, determine thirty-four compounds from Aeonium arboreum leaves. Twenty-one of them are assigned among which are sixteen flavonoids and five phenolic acids. FRAP, TAC, DPPH, and ABTS•+ radical scavenging were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The obtained IC50 values ranged from 0.031 to 0.043 mg.mL-1 for DPPH and between 0.048 and 0.09 mg·mL-1 for ABTS•+. Antimicrobial activity was also assessed. The obtained minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of these extracts ranged from 12.5 to 50 µg·mL-1 against Micrococcus luteus, Listeria ivanovii, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium oxysporum, and from 25 to 50 µg·mL-1 against Candida albicans. Therefore, these extracts can be considered as a potential source of biological active compounds.

Keywords: Aeonium arboreum; LC–MS/MS analysis; antifungal activity; antimicrobial activity; antioxidant activity; flavonoids; phenolic compounds.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Infective Agents / chemistry*
  • Anti-Infective Agents / pharmacology
  • Antioxidants / chemistry*
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Crassulaceae / chemistry*
  • Flavonoids / chemistry
  • Flavonoids / pharmacology
  • Phenols / chemistry*
  • Phenols / pharmacology
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry


  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Flavonoids
  • Phenols
  • Plant Extracts