Valorization of Artichoke Industrial By-Products Using Green Extraction Technologies: Formulation of Hydrogels in Combination with Paulownia Extracts

Molecules. 2021 Jul 20;26(14):4386. doi: 10.3390/molecules26144386.


The integral valorization of artichoke bracts generated during industrial canning of artichoke was assessed. The extraction of bioactive compounds was addressed with pressurized hot water under subcritical conditions. The performance of this stage on the extraction of phenolics with antioxidant properties and the saccharidic fraction using conventional and microwave heating was compared. The microwave assisted process was more efficient than the conventional one regarding extraction yields of total solubles, and glucose and fructose oligomers and phenolics, because lower operational temperatures and shorter times were needed. Degradation of fructose oligomers was observed at temperatures higher than 160 °C, whereas the maximal phenolic content occurred at 220 °C. Both the extracts and the residual solids, obtained at conditions leading to maximum phenolics yields, were evaluated for the production of starch-based hydrogels, supplemented with Paulownia leaves' aqueous extracts.

Keywords: antiradical properties; autohydrolysis; microwave; rheometry; saccharidic fraction.

MeSH terms

  • Cynara scolymus / chemistry*
  • Green Chemistry Technology*
  • Hot Temperature*
  • Hydrogels* / chemical synthesis
  • Hydrogels* / chemistry
  • Lamiales / chemistry*
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry*


  • Hydrogels
  • Plant Extracts