Evaluation of Groundwater Using an Integrated Approach of Entropy Weight and Stochastic Simulation: A Case Study in East Region of Beijing

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Jul 20;18(14):7703. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18147703.


Groundwater is an important source of water in Beijing. Hydrochemical composition and water quality are the key factors to determine the availability of groundwater. Therefore, an improved integrated weight water quality index approach (IWQI) combining the entropy weight method and the stochastic simulation method is proposed. Through systematic investigation of groundwater chemical composition in different periods, using a hydrogeochemical diagram, multivariate statistics and spatial interpolation analysis, the spatial evolution characteristics and genetic mechanism of groundwater chemistry are discussed. The results show that the groundwater in the study area is weakly alkaline and low mineralized water. The south part of the study area showed higher concentrations of total dissolved solids, total hardness and NO3--N in the dry season and wet season, and the main hydrochemical types are HCO3--Ca and HCO3--Ca-Mg. The natural source mechanism of the groundwater chemical components in Chaoyang District includes rock weathering, dissolution and cation exchange, while the human-made sources are mainly residents and industrial activities. Improved IWQI evaluation results indicate that water quality decreases from southwest to northeast along groundwater flow path. The water quality index (WQI) method cannot reflect the trend of groundwater. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the improved IWQI method could describe the overall water quality reliably, accurately and stably.

Keywords: Chaoyang district; IWQI; groundwater quality; hydrochemistry; sensitivity analysis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Beijing
  • Entropy
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Groundwater*
  • Humans
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical* / analysis
  • Water Quality


  • Water Pollutants, Chemical