Bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2) was measured using dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) in selected areas of the proximal tibia following uncemented PCA knee prosthesis. In nine patients with 14 alloplastic operations, measurements were taken at 3-6-month intervals for the first 3 1/2 years after operation. There was a significant increase in BMD of about 15% during the first 6 months after operation. The following year it remained increased, although not significantly, compared with the initial values, then gradually diminished. Increased bone density after arthroplasty may be explained mainly by stimulation of bone formation from weight bearing due to improved walking ability. Stress shielding of the proximal part of the supporting tibial bone did not seem to occur.