Update on the imaging features of the enchondromatosis syndromes

Skeletal Radiol. 2022 Apr;51(4):747-762. doi: 10.1007/s00256-021-03870-0. Epub 2021 Jul 24.


Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome are the commonest enchondromatosis subtypes, arising from non-hereditary mutations in the IDH1 and IDH2 genes, presenting in childhood and being characterised by multiple enchondromas. Maffucci syndrome also includes multiple soft tissue haemangiomas. Aside from developing bony masses, osseous deformity and pathological fracture, ~ 40% of these patients develop secondary central chondrosarcoma, and there is increased risk of non-skeletal malignancies such as gliomas and mesenchymal ovarian tumours. In this review, we outline the molecular genetics, pathology and multimodality imaging features of solitary enchondroma, Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome, along with their associated skeletal complications, in particular secondary chondrosarcoma. Given the lifelong risk of malignancy, imaging follow-up will also be explored. Metachondromatosis, a rare enchondromatosis subtype characterised by enchondromas and exostoses, will also be briefly outlined.

Keywords: Chondrosarcoma; Enchondroma; Enchondromatosis; Maffucci syndrome; Ollier disease.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bone Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Chondrosarcoma* / pathology
  • Enchondromatosis* / complications
  • Enchondromatosis* / diagnostic imaging
  • Enchondromatosis* / genetics
  • Exostoses, Multiple Hereditary*
  • Humans
  • Syndrome