Coming face to face with implicit bias, microagressions, and macroaggressions: Understanding the influence of structural racism and misogyny on physician wellness

J Vasc Surg. 2021 Aug;74(2S):101S-110S. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2021.04.021.


Implicit bias, microaggressions, and macroaggressions have a negative impact on physician and trainee wellness. In this article, we describe how structural racism, misogyny, and other social constructs have shaped the medical landscape. Increasing awareness in medical education, patient care, and research can help to dismantle the effects.

Keywords: Diversity; Equity; Implicit bias; Inclusion; Macroaggressions; Microaggressions.

MeSH terms

  • Aggression*
  • Attitude of Health Personnel*
  • Burnout, Professional / psychology
  • Cultural Diversity*
  • Culturally Competent Care
  • Female
  • Gender Equity
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mental Health*
  • Physician-Patient Relations
  • Physicians / psychology*
  • Physicians, Women / psychology
  • Race Factors
  • Racism / psychology*
  • Sex Factors
  • Sexism*