The COVID-19 pandemic is a big challenge for education worldwide because education has to be done virtually to stop the spread of the COVID-19. The problem is that there are students who live in areas far from cities, while learning in an interconnected world should be done virtually. Diverse geographical conditions in Indonesia consisting of mountains, lowlands, highlands, and valleys and some areas that are far away from cities make students difficult to connect to the internet and thus, virtual teaching is challenging. These areas are often referred to as remote areas. So far, the Indonesian government's approach to dealing with learning difficulties in remote areas is vague. This research aims to construct a theoretical learning framework that can be used to facilitate distance learning in remote areas in Indonesia. This research proposes a developmental theory of alternative learning in remote areas through the integrative literature review. In this research, the theoretical framework evolved out of the review of existing research on community radio, blended learning, transformative education, and critical pedagogy. This research yields a theoretical framework regarding the community radio-based blended learning model that contributes as a promising alternative learning solution in remote areas. It is inferred that this learning model would be a promising learning model in remote areas during unpredictable situations such as in the pandemic era.
Keywords: Community radio-based blended learning model; Integrative literature review; Pandemic era; Remote area.
© 2021 The Authors.