Treatment outcomes for young people at clinical high risk for psychosis: Data from a specialized clinic

Early Interv Psychiatry. 2022 May;16(5):500-508. doi: 10.1111/eip.13187. Epub 2021 Jul 26.


Aim: Treatment for youth exhibiting signs of clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR-P) has been emphasized in recent years, but there is need for a greater understanding of the course of symptoms and functioning across treatment. The aim of this study is to describe 10 years of naturalistic treatment outcomes in a real-world, specialized CHR-P outpatient clinic, the Center for Early Detection, Assessment, and Response to Risk (CEDAR) Clinic.

Methods: The CEDAR Clinic routinely collects client outcomes data for the purposes of program development, monitoring treatment effectiveness, and characterizing the clinic population. Clients are assessed at baseline, every 6 months (for up to 2 years depending on duration of treatment), and at the end of treatment. A series of mixed-effects models were performed to analyse change over time in outcomes (symptoms and functioning) between baseline and follow-up time points.

Results: Over time, clients' (N = 123) positive (F = 11.8, p < .001) and negative (F = 4.91, p = .002) symptoms declined relative to their baseline. Social functioning improved over time (F = 2.50, p = .049), as did depression (F = 8.60, p < .001) and hopelessness (F = 4.21, p = .004). Clients' total CEDAR treatment hours ranged across type of treatment service, but the amount of treatment clients received was not associated with any clinical outcomes.

Conclusions: Over the course of treatment at this real-world, specialized CHR-P program, clients exhibited significant improvement in clinical outcomes and did not significantly decline in any measured outcomes. We discuss this study in the context of current understanding and guidelines for specialized coordinated specialty care treatment for CHR-P.

Keywords: CHR-P; CSC; clinical high risk for psychosis; coordinated specialty care; longitudinal treatment outcomes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Ambulatory Care Facilities
  • Early Diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Psychotic Disorders* / diagnosis
  • Psychotic Disorders* / epidemiology
  • Psychotic Disorders* / therapy
  • Social Adjustment
  • Treatment Outcome