Objective: To investigate the nutritional status and influencing factors of rural primary and middle school students in a minority area in a certain city of Guizhou Province, so as to provide scientific evidence for prevention and intervention.
Methods: A multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method was adopted in this study, 3952 students from 6 primary and middle schools in a certain city of Guizhou Province were selected from April to June 2019 for height and weight measurement(1966 boys, 1986 girls, age(10.81±2.88) years old), among which 2833 students in grade 4 and above were surveyed(1374 boys and 1459 girls, age(13.44±1.94) years old), through the questionnaire to understand students& apos; basic information, breakfast and eating behaviors and so on, Using multi-factor Logistic regression to analyze the relationship between nutritional status and breakfast behavior.
Results: The height and weight of Han male students and female students in all age groups were slightly higher than those of ethnic minorities, but they tended to overlap gradually by the age of 16.The general height and weight of students in this area were lower than the 2014 national average. The general malnutrition rate of students was 21.39%, and the growth retardation rate was 13.13%, the moderate-to-severe wasting rate 3.04% and the mild wasting rate 5.22%. The malnutrition rate of minority students(24.72%) was higher than that of Han students(18.73%)(χ~2=14.93, P& lt; 0.05), the malnutrition rate of boys(26.49%) was higher than that of girls(16.59%)(χ~2=41.29, P& lt; 0.05). The sum of the rate of overweight and obesity of the students was 8.65%, among which the overweight rate was 6.42% and the obesity rate was 2.22%. There was no statistically significant difference in the variables between overweight and obese students(P& gt; 0.05). The breakfast behavior situation showed that rice noodle products(71.66%) were the most frequently consumed by primary and middle school students in the city. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that the frequency of breakfast, the quality of breakfast, fresh vegetables, milk and products, and the frequency of meat/egg/fish were the main influencing factors of malnutrition. The differences were statistically significant(P& lt; 0.05).
Conclusion: The growth and development status of primary and middle school students in a city of Guizhou Province mainly includes malnutrition, and the rate of overweight and obesity is not high, but prevention and control should still be paid attention to. The frequency and quality of breakfast are important influencing factors of malnutrition.
Keywords: breakfast behaviors; minority; nutrition status; primary and secondary school students.