Current Treatments and Therapeutic Options for COVID-19 Patients: A Systematic Review

Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2022;22(1):e260721194968. doi: 10.2174/1871526521666210726150435.


Introduction: COVID-19 is the third rising epidemic in the 21st century that quickly turned into a worldwide pandemic. Many clinical studies have been achieved to investigate treatments to confront COVID-19. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to describe the recent treatment strategies to treat COVID-19 patients.

Methods: A systematic search was performed in the databases of PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Science direct, Up to date, and Web of Science using the keywords of Coronavirus, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Novel Coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, Treatment, Medicine, Therapy, Intervention, Drug, Medications, and Cure. All the relevant articles were collected from December 2019 to July 2020.

Results: We included 58 studies including 38 articles (eleven reviews, ten editorial documents, three case reports, one mix method, one cohort study), and 19 published clinical trials. Review of studies showed that Lopinavir/Ritonavir (n=16), Remdesivir (n=13), Convalescent plasma (n=11), Chloroquine (n=11), Ribavirin (n=9), Hydroxychloroquine sulfate (n=8), Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) (n=8), and Arbidol (n=7), were the most frequently therapies used to treat COVID-19 patients.

Conclusion: In the absence of definitive treatment protocols, recently proposed approaches have appeared to be an effective therapy for accelerating the recovery of COVID-19 patients. Some of these treatments may have been in the early stages of testing. However, future preclinical and clinical trials are warranted to validate findings.

Keywords: COVID-19; COVID-19 therapy; Coronavirus; antiviral; intervention; medicine; treatment.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • COVID-19 Drug Treatment*
  • COVID-19 Serotherapy
  • COVID-19* / therapy
  • Cohort Studies
  • Humans
  • Immunization, Passive
  • SARS-CoV-2


  • Antiviral Agents