Dysbiotic microbiota interactions in Crohn's disease

Gut Microbes. 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1949096. doi: 10.1080/19490976.2021.1949096.


Crohn's disease (CD) is a major form of inflammatory bowel disease characterized by transmural inflammation along the alimentary tract. Changes in the microbial composition and reduction in species diversity are recognized as pivotal hallmarks in disease dynamics, challenging the gut barrier function and shaping a pathological immune response in genetically influenced subjects. The purpose of this review is to delve into the modification of the gut microbiota cluster network during CD progression and to discuss how this shift compromises the gut barrier integrity, granting the translocation of microbes and their products. We then complete the scope of the review by retracing gut microbiota dysbiosis interactions with the main pathophysiologic factors of CD, starting from the host's genetic background to the immune inflammatory and fibrotic processes, providing a standpoint on the lifestyle/exogenous factors and the potential benefits of targeting a specific gut microbiota.

Keywords: Crohn’s disease; bacterial translocation; dysbiosis; fibrosis; inflammation; microbiota.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Translocation*
  • Crohn Disease / complications*
  • Crohn Disease / microbiology*
  • Crohn Disease / physiopathology*
  • Dysbiosis / etiology*
  • Dysbiosis / microbiology*
  • Fibrosis / etiology
  • Fibrosis / microbiology
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / etiology
  • Inflammation / microbiology

Grants and funding

This study has been partially funded by PID2019-107036RB-I00, from Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades, Madrid, Spain, and 2020-0287, from IIS ISABIAL, Hospital General Universitario, Alicante, Spain;Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovacion y Universidades [PID2019-107036RB-I00];