Complete heart block is a common complication for adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). Epicardial pacing is preferred in patients with septal shunting due to risk of thromboembolism. Anatomic changes in complex CHD may preclude surgical epicardial lead placement. Thromboembolism risk reduction in such patients requiring endocardial pacing remains questionable. (Level of Difficulty: Advanced.).
Keywords: AV, atrioventricular; CHD, congenital heart disease; CT, computed tomography; bradycardia; cardiac pacemaker; computed tomography; cyanotic heart disease; stroke; ventricular septal defect.
© 2021 The Authors.