Bone regeneration using Wollastonite/ β-TCP scaffolds implants in critical bone defect in rat calvaria

Biomed Phys Eng Express. 2021 Aug 6;7(5). doi: 10.1088/2057-1976/ac1878.

Abstract

In order to provide favorable conditions for bone regeneration, a lot of biomaterials have been developed and evaluated, worldwide. Composite biomaterials have gained notoriety, as they combine desirable properties of each isolated material. Thus, in this research, bone repair capacity of three developed formulations of ceramic scaffolds were evaluated histomorphometrically, after implantation. Scaffolds were based on wollastonite (W) andβ-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) composites in three different ratios (wt.%). ThirtyWistarrats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: W-20 (20 W/80β-TCP wt.%), W-60 (60 W/40β-TCP wt.%), and W-80 (80 W/20β-TCP wt.%), evaluated by optical microscopy at biological tests after 15 and 45 days of implantation. Throughout the study, the histological results evidenced that the scaffolds remained at the implantation site, were biocompatible and presented osteogenic potential. The percentage of neoformed mineralized tissue was more evident in the W-20 group (51%), at 45 days. The composite of the W-80 group showed more evident biodegradation than the biomaterials of the W-20 and W-60 groups. Thus, it is concluded that the scaffold containing 20 W/80β-TCP (wt.%) promoted more evident bone formation, but all composites evaluated in this study showed notorious bioactivity and promising characteristics for clinical application.

Keywords: biomaterials; bone regeneration; calcium phosphates; calcium silicate; rat calvaria.