Acute Kidney Injury and Early Predictive Factors in COVID-19 Patients

Front Med (Lausanne). 2021 Jul 12:8:604242. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2021.604242. eCollection 2021.


Objectives: Our objective was to explore the incidence and early predictive factors of acute kidney injury in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Method: We established a retrospective cohort of 408 patients who were admitted to Shenzhen Third People's Hospital in Shenzhen, China, between January 1 and March 31, 2020. Clinical outcomes and renal function were monitored until April 12, 2020, with a median follow-up duration of 21 days [interquartile range (IQR) = 14-33]. Results: When first admitted to hospital (baseline), 19.36% (79/408) presented renal dysfunction [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <90 ml/min/1.73 m2]. During follow-up, 3.9% (16/408) developed acute kidney injury (AKI). Age ≥60 years [hazard ratio (HR) = 4.78, 95% CI = 1.10-20.69], PaO2/FiO2 ratio <300 (HR = 3.48, 95% CI = 1.04-11.62), and higher creatinine (HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01-1.07) at baseline independently predicted the risk of AKI. Respectively, 25.0% (102/408), 3.9% (16/408), 0.5% (2/408), 1.0% (4/408), and 0.2% (1/408) experienced G2, G3a, G3b, G4, and G5 as their most severe category during hospitalization, while 69.4% (283/408) had normal eGFRs throughout the follow-up period. When finally discharged from hospital, there were 12.5% (51/408) of patients with abnormal eGFRs. Conclusions: COVID-19 patients can be at risk of AKI and continuous eGFR decline during hospitalization, which can be early predicted by baseline factors. Some individuals still had renal dysfunction when finally discharged from hospital.

Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; acute kidney injury; coronavirus; creatinine; eGFR.