Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common chronic lung disease of prematurity resulting from complex interactions of perinatal factors that often lead to prolonged respiratory support and increased pulmonary morbidity. There is also growing appreciation for the dysmorphic pulmonary bed characterized by vascular growth arrest and remodeling, resulting in pulmonary vascular disease and its most severe form, pulmonary hypertension (PH) in children with BPD. In this review, we comprehensively discuss the pathophysiology of PH in children with BPD, evaluate the current recommendations for screening and diagnosis of PH, discern associated comorbid conditions, and outline the current treatment options.
Keywords: chronic lung disease; premature; pulmonary vascular disease; sildenafil; vasodilator.
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