Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides with pulmonary involvement include granulomatosis with polyangiitis, microscopic polyangiitis, and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and can present with life-threatening pulmonary hemorrhage in up to 40% of patients. Mortality in those patients who require intubation and mechanical ventilation can reach 77%. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used to support these patients through definitive diagnosis and treatment, although minimizing the risk of ventilator-induced lung injury. We aimed to determine factors associated with favorable outcomes in patients with (ANCA)-associated vasculitides supported on ECMO. We performed a retrospective observational study using the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry of pediatric and adult patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis supported on ECMO from 2010 to 2020. One hundred thirty-five patients were included for analysis. Many patients had renal involvement (39%) in addition to pulmonary involvement (93%). Survival was 73% in AAV patients supported on ECMO. The presence of pulmonary hemorrhage was not associated with worse outcomes in our cohort. Older age, the use of venoarterial ECMO, ECMO-cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or sustaining a cardiac arrest before ECMO was associated with decreased survival. In conclusion, venovenous ECMO should be considered as a supportive bridge to definitive diagnosis and treatment in (ANCA)-associated vasculitides, regardless if pulmonary hemorrhage is present.
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