Objectives: This study was to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation (IR) on oral carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and to further explore subsequent effects of IR-induced "zombie" CAFs on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells.
Materials and methods: Three primary CAFs and one primary normal-associated fibroblasts (NAFs) were separated from human OSCC and normal oral mucosa tissues, identified by immunocytochemistry. Cells were exposed to IR by X-ray irradiator under different doses. The DNA damage, proliferation, and migration of irradiated CAFs were, respectively, detected by immunofluorescence and wound healing assay, while senescence was detected by β-galactosidase staining. Finally, the effect of irradiated CAFs on biological behavior and radioresistance of Cal-27 cells were determined via assays mentioned above.
Results: Oral CAFs were sensitive to IR with DNA damage increasing and proliferation decreasing. 18 Gy IR could not kill oral CAFs but induce them to "zombies," with arrested proliferation, increased senescence, and reduced migration. "Zombie" CAFs (zCAFs) could enhance proliferation, migration, and invasion of Cal-27 cells, and show suppressed pro-radioresistance by reducing DNA damage and facilitating survival.
Conclusions: IR-induced zCAFs could continuously promote radioresistance of OSCC cells though being suppressed, suggesting the potential promoting effect on tumor relapse post-radiotherapy that needed further exploring.
Keywords: carcinoma-associated fibroblasts; ionizing radiation; oral squamous cell carcinoma; radioresistance; senescence; zombie-like.
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