Management of Obesity in Cardiovascular Practice: JACC Focus Seminar

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2021 Aug 3;78(5):513-531. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2021.05.035.


Obesity contributes to reduced life expectancy because of its link with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Yet, targeting this poorly diagnosed, ill-defined, and underaddressed modifiable risk factor remains a challenge. In this review, we emphasize that the tendency among health care professionals to amalgam all forms of obesity altogether as a single entity may contribute to such difficulties and discrepancies. Obesity is a heterogeneous condition both in terms of causes and health consequences. Attention should be given to 2 prevalent subgroups of individuals: 1) patients who are overweight or moderately obese with excess visceral adipose tissue; and 2) patients with severe obesity, the latter group having distinct additional health issues related to their large body fat mass. The challenge of tackling high-cardiovascular-risk forms of obesity through a combination of personalized clinical approaches and population-based solutions is compounded by the current obesogenic environment and economy.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease; ectopic fat deposition; massive obesity; type 2 diabetes; visceral obesity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology*
  • Humans
  • Obesity / complications*
  • Obesity / therapy*